In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. In CURVACE, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

Floreano D, et al. (2013) Miniature curved artificial compound eyes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 110, no. 23, pp 9267-9272, available online.


Curved Artificial Compound Eye. (A) Image of the CurvACE prototype. The entire device occupies a volume of 2.2 cm3, weighs 1.75 g, and consumes 0.9 W at maximum power. (B) Illustration of the panoramic FOV of the fabricated prototype. The dots and circles represent the angular orientation and acceptance angle of every ommatidium, respectively.

  • Project CURVACE is funded under: FP7 (Seventh Framework Programme)
  • Area: FET Open (ICT-2007.8.0)
  • Project reference: 237940
  • Total cost: 2.73 million euro
  • EU contribution: 2.09 million euro
  • Execution: From 2009-10-01 to 2013-06-31
  • Duration: 45 months

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